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BEVM Unveils Groundbreaking Taproot Consensus for Decentralized Bitcoin Layer 2 Solution

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[PRESS RELEASE – Cardiff, 英国, May 26th, 2024]

On May 20, 2024, the Bitcoin Layer2 development team BEVM released the technical yellow paper titled “Taproot Consensus: A Decentralized BTC Layer2 Solution.” This paper details the implementation of Taproot Consensus, leveraging native Bitcoin technologies such as Schnorr signatures, MAST, and Bitcoin SPV nodes to build a fully decentralized BTC Layer2 solution. Taproot Consensus represents a significant leap in native Bitcoin scalability, combining existing Bitcoin technologies innovatively without modifying Bitcoin’s core code.

I. History of Bitcoin’s Technical Iterations

  • October 31, 2008: Satoshi Nakamoto published “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System,” introducing Bitcoin and the concept of SPV (Simple Payment Verification).
  • January 3, 2009: Nakamoto mined the Genesis Block, launching Bitcoin. The original code used ECDSA for digital signatures instead of the more suitable Schnorr signatures, which were under patent protection at the time. Schnorr signatures retain all the functionalities and security assumptions of ECDSA and can surpass the 15-signature limit of ECDSA, enabling the management of Bitcoin with thousands of addresses without affecting signing speed.
  • 2018: Bitcoin core developers proposed integrating Schnorr signatures into the Bitcoin network.
  • November 14, 2021: The Taproot upgrade integrated Schnorr signatures and introduced MAST (Merkelized Abstract Syntax Trees), enabling smart contract-like capabilities and decentralized multi-signature management.
  • The Taproot Consensus solution by BEVM builds on these advancements, combining Schnorr signatures and MAST to manage multi-signature addresses and enable complex business scenarios in Bitcoin Layer2.

II. Overview of the Taproot Consensus Solution:

The yellow paper begins by highlighting Bitcoin’s non-Turing complete nature and limited functionality for smart contracts. It argues for using Bitcoin’s existing capabilities to build a decentralized Layer2 solution rather than modifying Bitcoin Layer1.

BEVM’s Taproot Consensus combines Bitcoin’s Taproot technology (Schnorr signatures and MAST), Bitcoin SPV light nodes, and the BFT PoS consensus mechanism to create a decentralized and consistent Layer2 network.

III. Detailed Explanation of Taproot Consensus Architecture

The Taproot Consensus architecture comprises three main components: Schnorr+MAST, Bitcoin SPV, and Aura+Grandpa.

· Schnorr+MAST: Uses these technologies from the Taproot upgrade to achieve decentralized Bitcoin multi-signature management driven by Bitcoin code.

· Bitcoin SPV: Allows synchronization and verification of Bitcoin transactions without running a full node.

· Aura + Grandpa: Advanced PoS consensus protocols for Byzantine fault tolerance, ensuring high consistency among network nodes.

In the BEVM system, each validator holds a BTC private key for Schnorr signatures. The aggregated public key forms a MAST tree, enabling BTC transfers and inscriptions to the threshold signature address. Validators act as Bitcoin SPV light nodes, synchronizing the BTC network state securely and permissionlessly. Aura+Grandpa ensures the Layer2 network’s security and trustworthiness, with assets managed by BFT consensus.

The operating principle of Taproot Consensus is: “In the BEVM system, each validator holds a BTC private key for Schnorr signatures. The characteristic of Schnorr signatures enables efficient signature aggregation, thereby enhancing the system’s security and efficiency. The aggregated public key Pagg, generated through the Musig2 multi-signature scheme, forms a large MAST (Merkle Abstract Syntax Tree). After generating the root hash of the MAST tree, validators perform BTC transfers and inscriptions to the threshold signature address generated by the MAST tree, enabling the submission of data from the BTC mainnet to the BEVM network. Each validator also acts as a Bitcoin SPV (Simplified Payment Verification) light node, allowing them to securely and permissionlessly synchronize the BTC network state.”

IV. Other Technical Details in the Yellow Paper – True Decentralization

The yellow paper also details the implementation of Schnorr signatures, MAST, Bitcoin SPV light nodes, and Aura+Grandpa, providing a comprehensive technical outline for those interested in Bitcoin technologies. It explains the Musig2 implementation and contrasts with other BTC Layer2 projects like Mezo, which uses the tBTC protocol. Unlike tBTC, which relies on a network of nine signatories, Taproot Consensus integrates multi-signature networks with BFT PoS consensus, achieving true decentralization.

Moreover, the yellow paper explains the implementation process of Musig2 and the differences between other BTC Layer2 projects like Mezo and Taproot Consensus. Mezo’s underlying technical structure is based on the tBTC protocol, which uses Bitcoin multi-signature to construct a threshold signature network, offering strong consistency compared to traditional distributed networks. However, tBTC still relies on a network of nine signatories, whereas a truly decentralized system should be consensus-driven, combining multi-signature networks with BFT PoS (Byzantine Fault Tolerance Proof of Stake) consensus mechanisms. This is the difference between distributed networks and blockchains; distributed networks emphasize distribution but lack Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus, whereas blockchains, while also being distributed networks, are driven by Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus, achieving true decentralization. The Taproot Consensus solution adopts this more advanced design. By integrating Schnorr signatures, MAST, Bitcoin SPV light nodes, and Aura and Grandpa Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus mechanisms, it constructs a highly consistent and secure decentralized Layer2 scalability solution. This integration enhances the scalability and usability of the Bitcoin network and ensures the security and consistency of the BEVM network.

Conclusion

The BEVM team’s technical yellow paper comprehensively describes Taproot Consensus, a Bitcoin Layer2 solution built entirely on native Bitcoin technologies. It respects and innovates on Bitcoin’s original technological direction, making it a true evolution of native Bitcoin scalability technology. As the Bitcoin ecosystem evolves, solutions like Taproot Consensus will be crucial for its development, serving as major cornerstones for truly decentralized Bitcoin Layer2 solutions.

About BEVM

BEVM is the first fully decentralized, EVM-compatible Bitcoin Layer 2 solution. It allows Ethereum ecosystem DApps to operate on Bitcoin, using BTC as gas. BEVM enhances Bitcoin’s utility by providing a secure and scalable platform for decentralized applications. The system integrates advanced consensus mechanisms, cross-chain interaction, and robust data integrity to ensure a seamless experience. BEVM aims to innovate within the Bitcoin ecosystem by offering increased scalability, security, and compatibility with popular Ethereum tools and applications.

For more information, users can visit BEVm’s official website or follow BEVM on Twitter.

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Cryptocurrency

BTC Tanks to $61K as Long-Awaited Mt. Gox Repayments to Begin in July

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On June 24, the Mt. Gox rehabilitation trustee issued a letter regarding repayments to creditors commencing at the beginning of July 2024.

“The Rehabilitation Trustee has been preparing to make repayments in Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash under the Rehabilitation Plan,” it stated.

The move comes after extensive preparations to ensure safe and compliant repayments, it added.

Mt. Gox Repayments

Additionally, the process involved technical safeguards, adherence to various countries’ financial regulations, and discussions with cryptocurrency exchanges, according to the letter.

Repayments will be made through trading platforms, starting with those that have completed the necessary information exchange and confirmation process with the Trustee. Creditors were advised to wait patiently as the repayments in BTC and BCH were processed.

Mt. Gox became insolvent after a hack that led to the theft of 850,000 BTC, valued at $460 million at the time of the incident in 2014.

Some of the larger creditors of the bankrupt crypto exchange chose a payment option that would allow them to receive a lump sum of their recovery payout in BTC rather than fiat.

Additionally, on-chain analysts identified several large BTC movements associated with Mt. Gox in late May. They cautioned that this could put selling pressure on Bitcoin markets.

This latest news has already sparked concern over large amounts of Bitcoin entering markets that have already turned bearish.

Bitcoin pioneer Kyle Chassé echoed the concern, exclaiming, “F*cking $9 billion worth of Bitcoin repayments.”

Analyst Don Alt advised caution when trading with further losses expected.

“Gonna be interesting to see how price reacts to the Mt. Gox announcement. Bulls need to show significant strength to reverse this slow bleed. If they can’t, the bottom of the range may just fall out.”

Impact on BTC

In addition to this sell-side pressure, Bitcoin miners have been offloading the asset. Miners sold over 30,000 BTC worth around $2 billion in June, “the highest amount this year, dropping reserves to a 14-year low,” said analyst ‘Carl B Menger.’

“BTC is now approaching the critical level where many will give up this cycle,” said analyst ‘Titan of Crypto’ in a post on X on June 24.

Bitcoin prices dumped to $61,000 on the news, accelerating losses over the past 24 hours, which are now 4.6%.

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Ethereum Price Analysis: Is $3K Imminent for ETH Following 5% Daily Dump

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The Ethereum price has been dropping since getting rejected from the $4,000 resistance level. In the past 24 hours, the selling intensified and the bears are seemingly targeting the important resistance level at $3,000.

Technical Analysis

By TradingRage

The Daily Chart

The daily chart shows that the price has dropped below the $3,600 level and is rapidly approaching the $3,000 support zone. The 200-day moving average is also around the $3,000 mark, further boosting the importance of this level.

The Relative Strength Index has dropped below 50%, indicating that the momentum has shifted bearish. If the $3,000 level breaks down, things can get ugly for ETH, as a further drop toward $2,800 and even the $2,200 zone could be expected.

eth_price_chart_2406241
Source: TradingView

The 4-Hour Chart

Looking at the 4-hour timeframe, the price has been making lower highs and lows since the rejection from the $4,000 resistance level.

At the moment, the cryptocurrency is approaching a long-term bullish trendline. A break below it would probably result in a bearish phase in the coming weeks.

Yet, the RSI has dropped below %30, making ETH oversold on the 4-hour chart. Therefore, a rebound from the trendline or the $3,000 level is still possible.

eth_price_chart_2406242
Source: TradingView

Sentiment Analysis

By TradingRage

Funding Rates

While the Ethereum price has been trending down after failing to break above the $4,000 level and rally toward its all-time high, the futures market sentiment is weakening.

This chart presents the Ethereum funding rate metric. It measures whether the buyers or the sellers are more aggressively executing their orders. Positive funding rates indicate bullish sentiment, while negative ones are associated with bearish sentiment.

Currently, the funding rates are declining as the price is trending down. While this shows the sentiment is gradually shifting, it might not be bad for the price. This is because of the probability of a long liquidation cascade, or the magnitude of a possible one, as the futures market is cooling down.

eth_funding_rate_chart_2404241
Source: CryptoQuant
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Disclaimer: Information found on CryptoPotato is those of writers quoted. It does not represent the opinions of CryptoPotato on whether to buy, sell, or hold any investments. You are advised to conduct your own research before making any investment decisions. Use provided information at your own risk. See Disclaimer for more information.

Cryptocurrency charts by TradingView.

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Cryptocurrency

BTC Price Analysis: Here’s the First Critical Support if Bitcoin Drops Below $60K

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Bitcoin’s price has dropped rapidly over the last few days after failing to keep above the $70K level. The market is currently approaching a fundamental level.

Bitcoin Price Analysis: Technicals

By TradingRage

The Daily Chart

As the daily timeframe demonstrates, the BTC price has been trending downward since the beginning of June following a rejection from the $72K zone. The price is approaching the pivotal $60K support level.

With the 200-day moving average around the $58K mark, a break below $60K could lead to a retest of the moving average. Overall, the market’s mid-term fate relies on the price’s reaction to these support elements.

btc_price_chart_2406241
Source: TradingView

The 4-Hour Chart

On the 4-hour chart, the large falling wedge pattern has finally been broken to the downside, and the price is aggressively approaching the $60K support zone. The Relative Strength Index has also declined rapidly and is showing values below 30% at the moment.

Therefore, BTC is currently oversold on the 4-hour timeframe, and a short-term rebound or consolidation at the $60K level is probable.

Yet, if the market breaks lower, the $58K support zone would be the next potential target.

btc_price_chart_2406242
Source: TradingView

On-Chain Analysis

By TradingRage

Bitcoin Short-Term Holder SOPR

While Bitcoin’s price has decreased recently, many market participants are seeing their unrealized profits shrink. Meanwhile, some holders have realized their profits and exited the market before going into a loss.

This chart presents the Bitcoin Short-Term Holder SOPR, demonstrating the profit and loss ratio. Values above one indicate that investors are selling at a profit, while values below one point to losses.

The STH SOPR is trending down, as is the BTC price. The short-term holders are on the verge of realizing losses, which would happen if the market drops below $60K.

Yet, this also occurs at the lows during a bull market. So, if we consider the bull market not over yet, the low could be very close.

btc_short_term_sopr_chart_2406241
Source: CryptoQuant
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Disclaimer: Information found on CryptoPotato is those of writers quoted. It does not represent the opinions of CryptoPotato on whether to buy, sell, or hold any investments. You are advised to conduct your own research before making any investment decisions. Use provided information at your own risk. See Disclaimer for more information.

Cryptocurrency charts by TradingView.

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