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DVT 101: All You Need to Know on ETH Staking with Decentralized Validator Technology

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By Adam Efrima

The crypto space is full of buzzwords and abbreviations, and today, I’ll be discussing one that’s not quite so widespread yet: Decentralized Validator Technology, or DVT. It promises to fix a major worry about how traditional validator setups operate on Ethereum by significantly decentralizing and securing the process.

Validators are the entities that build blocks in Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchains, similar to miners in Bitcoin (and other Proof-of-Work (PoW) protocols). Ever since Ethereum moved entirely to PoS in September 2022 with The Merge, the blockchain has been supported by a set of approximately 900,000 validators, which theoretically makes it the most decentralized PoS network currently live.

However, not all that glitter is gold in this space. Multiple issues have been raised regarding how PoS is currently implemented in Ethereum, all of which contribute to making it a bit less decentralized than it would seem. But first, we need to dive into the weeds of what a validator in Ethereum really is.

Ethereum Validators Aren’t Like the Rest

A big difference between Ethereum and other PoS networks is that the validator nodes need to have a stake of 32 ETH — no more, no less. This limit was chosen so that it’d offer a reasonable entry point for average Joes to stake while still not creating too many validators for no reason. Right now, 32 ETH is worth about $95,000, but back when staking was first introduced (first as a separate chain) in 2020, it was closer to $30,000.

If you hold more than 32 ETH though, you’ll need to split your stake between multiple “validators,” which explains the very large number of active validators today. In practice, there are likely 10,000-20,000 independent entities (including companies and indie stakers) who are contributing to Ethereum security.

On a technical level, validators are a special entity controlled by their own private keys, which are activated when a prospective staker bridges 32 ETH to the Beacon chain. This chain manages the consensus process, assigning a portion of validators to propose blocks while others “attest” that these blocks are correct. Behaving improperly, for example, by signing invalid blocks or by being offline, leads to stake slashing (though it’s usually quite soft) or penalties incurred on the ETH principal.

Many PoS systems (a.k.a Delegated-PoS or DPoS) enable stake delegation, where users can natively assign their coins to a particular validator, who they trust to do a good job validating the chain and earning staking yield (a centralizing force). On Ethereum, there are no native mechanisms to do this, meaning that people must either run their own validator (self-custody of keys) or trust a service to do so — that is, until DVT came along.

The Pressing Need to Decentralize Staking

The premise of Proof-of-Stake is that no single entity can control more than a certain percentage of the total stake that is currently engaged in validating a protocol. In that case, they can dictate what is the “majority” chain and start behaving incorrectly without penalties, jeopardizing the functioning of the network.

In Ethereum, currently, the vast majority of the staking power is held by Lido, a decentralized finance protocol that offers a convenient “wrapper” or liquid staking token (LST) of a user’s staked position called stETH. The benefit of this system is that you can just stake on the protocol or even buy the token and start staking to earn yield without doing anything else — the underlying system does everything for you.

Lido as a whole currently controls a bit more than 31% of the ETH staked, which is dangerously close to the 33% threshold needed to prevent Ethereum blocks from being finalized (if Lido wished to do so). This sounds worse than it really is: Lido is a decentralized protocol that spreads its stake over many independent node operators, so it can’t really coordinate easily to perform this attack.

Also, as a decentralized business whose entire model relies on being trusted by the Ethereum community, it has no incentive to do so. Finally, a 33% attack is not the end of the world for Ethereum, as it’d just result in blocks not being finalized — they’d still be correct, and the attacker wouldn’t be able to really exploit this issue.

But despite some caveats, some in the community are uneasy about Lido’s dominance, as ultimately, the node operators it chooses have custody over the staked ETH and control part of the validation process. Lido has, however, started implementing technologies to decentralize its node operations by integrating the Simple DVT module.

These advancements promote increased participation and collaboration, facilitating smaller operators to align with larger counterparts thereby fostering a more diverse and robust network. This inclusive approach sets the stage for a trustless future, allowing even at-home validators to integrate with Lido seamlessly.

Decentralized Validator Technology to the Rescue

If the issue is that validators are custodial and somewhat centralized, the logical solution is to turn this process into a decentralized and trustless mechanism. This is, in a nutshell, what DVT offers today.

DVT works by splitting an Ethereum validator’s private key into multiple shares via various cryptographic techniques. The shares are encrypted and distributed to node operators, who then simultaneously run the validator to contribute to Ethereum’s security. Because the actual validator key is never seen or controlled by the operators, the process becomes non-custodial, trustless, secure, and much more fault-tolerant.

DVT is only starting out, but it could be a significant part of Ethereum’s future roadmap. As the network pushes for more scalability, there are serious discussions of increasing the 32 ETH limit to make the total validator numbers more manageable. To counteract the increase in centralization, DVT is being proposed as one of the ways to enable fully decentralized staking pools for smaller users.

Author bio

Adam Efrima is the SSV Core team Co-founder, a decentralized validator infrastructure for ETH staking. He has been active in the crypto industry since 2013. Over eight years living in China working in the financial industry and fintech space, Adam has worked in CITIC Bank covering outbound investments for Chinese SOEs. He was also in charge of setting up eToro’s Shanghai operation. Since then, Adam has been deeply involved in Ethereum staking, co-founding the performing staking project Bloxstaking.

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Cryptocurrency

BLVD United Signs MOU with MeDoDo Coin: Pioneering a New Era in Fan Engagement and Biotech Innovation

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[PRESS RELEASE – Los Angeles CA, United States, May 23rd, 2024]

In an unprecedented fusion of innovative science and advanced technology, a leading biotech company has unveiled an ambitious project to bring back the extinct Dodo Bird. Embracing the spirit of this fearless and curious bird, the company is also introducing the MeDoDo Coin.

Historically, the Dodo Bird was known for its fearless and inquisitive nature, often following humans out of sheer fascination. Inspired by this behavior, the MeDoDo Coin symbolizes the unwavering love and support fans offer their favorite artists, mirroring the Dodo Bird’s curious devotion. The MeDoDo Coin operates on the BEP-20 standard. This unique cryptocurrency aims to create a vibrant ecosystem where fans can connect with and support their beloved artists in ground-breaking ways.

In an exciting development, MeDoDo is finalizing talks with “The Plu9,” the world’s most anticipated and largest hip-hop metaverse. Designed by the visionary behind the phenomenally successful “Grand Theft Auto 5” (GTA 5), which grossed over $10 billion for Sony PlayStation, “The Plu9” will serve as the launch platform for this new digital ecosystem.

BLVD United, exclusively distributed by Universal Music Group, led by Managing Partner Damuer H. Leffridge, is spearheading the project. Leffridge has a storied history of collaborating with superstars like Chris Brown, Wiz Khalifa, YG, and Eric Bellinger. Notably, BLVD United was instrumental in the triumphant return of Billboard and Nickelodeon Kids’ Choice Award-winning multi-platinum group B2K, which achieved significant acclaim, including a nomination for Billboard Tour of the Year 2020.

Additionally, Leffridge piloted the affiliate sales and marketing efforts of the Zondervan published Audie Award-winning audio Bible, “The Bible Experience.” The project features a constellation of stars, including three Oscar winners, five Golden Globe winners, seven Emmy winners, and twenty-three Grammy winners. Led by Academy Award-winning actors Forest Whitaker, Cuba Gooding Jr., and Denzel Washington, along with Angela Bassett, Blair Underwood, and Samuel L. Jackson, establishing Leffridge’s expertise and significant presence in the industry.

Get ready to connect with music superstars, top producers, Hollywood icons, and your favorite industry legends from around the world in a groundbreaking way. The MeDoDo Coin and its exciting projects are poised to transform fan interaction and support, taking engagement to unprecedented levels.

About BLVD United

Driven by innovative projects across various media platforms BLVD United stands at the vanguard of the entertainment industry and a cutting-edge entertainment powerhouse with deepened industry experience complimented with a proven track record of success. BLVD United features an award-winning creative team of comprising industry veterans and celebrated artists.

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Multipool Enters Partnership with Mobilum Offering Users Fiat to DeFi On/Off Ramp

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[PRESS RELEASE – Majuro, Marshall Islands, May 23rd, 2024]

Multipool, a leading innovator in the blockchain and cryptocurrency industry announces a corporate partnership with Mobilum. The partnership between Multipool and Mobilum will enable users to onboard onto cryptocurrencies without involving a centralized exchange.

“Centralized exchanges are on their way out, we’re thrilled to give users another option, without intrusive roadblocks to their DeFi lifestyle. This partnership offers a long list of benefits for both parties, with a truly DeFi onboard as the highlight. Getting MULLED is now much more accessible to the mass market” Steven Murray, a Core Contributor at Multipool.

“Mobilum is excited to connect with Multipool enabling their users with an efficient onboard ramp directly into DeFi without going via a centralized exchange. This partnership makes perfect sense and gives Mobilum direct access to Multipool’s extensive volume, deep liquidity, and retail users worldwide.” Wojciech Kaszycki, CEO – Mobilum Tech UAB

Never Have CEX Again

The world of crypto is heavily focused on DeFi (decentralized finance), but the only access point for the majority of people is via a centralized exchange. Multipool & Mobilum aim to change that, by offering users a simple and easy way into the world of crypto. With Mobilum, people can come to Multipool, directly into the DeFi world without having to touch a centralized exchange.

To learn more about Multipool and its features, users can visit:

Websitewww.multipool.finance

Telegramt.me/multipoolfi

Xwww.x.com/multipoolfi

Users can learn more about Multipool’s LBP live on Fjord Foundry now – Fjord Foundry $MUL LBP

About Multipool

Multipool is a cutting-edge decentralized exchange (DEX) transforming the trading landscape for real-world assets (RWAs) and cryptocurrencies. Multipool is designed for fairness and equality, featuring a fully decentralized on-chain order book, deep liquidity through dynamic bracket pools, and seamless trading of RWAs and cryptocurrencies. Utilizing world-class innovations including industry-first FIX APIs, low latency networks, zero price impact auctions, trustless RFQs, peer-to-peer repo lending, and MEV bot protection, Multipool sets a new standard in DeFi trading. Experience unparalleled efficiency and security in your trading journey with Multipool – The DEX with CEX appeal.

www.multipool.finance

About Mobilum Technologies Inc.

Mobilum is a financial technology company providing various payments and banking solutions to bridge the gap between traditional finance and Web 3 economy. Building all-in-one infrastructure to meet global payment needs in both Web 2 and Web 3. Mobilum develops innovative products for retail and institutional clients enabling them to transfer, manage and spend fiat currencies and as digital assets alike in a safe, convenient and compliant manner. Poland, Lithuania, Canada and the United States. For further information, users can visit www.mobilum.com.

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These USDT and USDC Factors Suggest Upcoming Bitcoin Rally: Data

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The latest market recovery has sparked concerns about a potential retracement. But a new analysis offers a reassuring perspective for those who are apprehensive.

According to Santiment, the growing number of non-empty stablecoin wallets indicates increased investor interest and engagement in stable assets.

Growing Confidence in Stablecoins During Market Recovery

Specifically, in 2024, the number of non-empty USDC wallets increased by 13.9%, while USDT wallets saw an even higher growth of 15.7%. This trend suggests that more investors are opting to hold stablecoins, which could stabilize the market and mitigate the impact of future retraces.

Santiment’s data further revealed a significant adoption and growth of stablecoin wallets. Among the stablecoins tracked, Tether (USDT) has the highest number of non-empty wallets, standing at a whopping 5.7 million. This figure highlights the widespread use and popularity of the leading stablecoin within the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

Next up is Circle’s USDC, with 2.15 million non-empty wallets, indicating a strong demand. Although lower than Tether, the USDC wallet count is still noteworthy, reflecting its growing acceptance and adoption despite last year’s setback.

The decentralized stablecoin, DAI, issued by MakerDAO, also attracted a notable presence with 503,180 non-empty wallets, indicating the increased interest in decentralized finance (DeFi) and the use of DAI as a stable asset within these protocols and applications.

Lastly, BUSD, the stablecoin issued by the popular cryptocurrency exchange Binance, has 128,210 non-empty wallets. While lower than the others, this figure still represents a significant user base for BUSD, even after Binance ceased support of the token.

Stablecoin Market Growth 2024

The stablecoin market cap has seen tremendous recovery and growth this year, rising to $161.4 billion, which is indicative of heightened capital inflows into the market. The US spot Bitcoin ETFs sector significantly contributed to this growth as institutional investors and major traditional finance entities boosted their stablecoin holdings to capitalize on the ETF market.

According to Chainalysis’ recent findings, in January 2024 alone, the US recorded stablecoin purchases of over $30 billion.

Although the US and the EU continue to have a strong presence in the market, emerging economies like Thailand, Brazil, and particularly Turkey stand out for their stablecoin purchases relative to their national GDP.

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