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NFT: Paying for air or an asset?

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NFT is the most discussed digital trend right now. While some users have joined the chase for the most unusual crypto-art, others do not understand the real value of tokens. 

NFTs are incorrectly classified as digital currencies because they are digital certificates of ownership; that is, they are intellectual property objects, as they are the result of human intellectual activity.

Let’s deal with the concept of NFT

Often “token” refers to any cryptocurrency or crypto-asset, which, in fact, only creates more confusion. The closest to the truth defines a token as a certain unit of account, which itself is not a cryptocurrency. In fact, it is a special registry entry that certifies that a certain person owns the right to a certain asset.

The term non-interchangeable can also be replaced with the word “unique” – its specificity is that each token is specific and cannot be exchanged or replaced with another token of the same kind.

It turns out that NFT is a unique record in the registry, confirming a person’s right to a particular asset. As a rule, NFT is used to secure the right to unique objects from the virtual world, which are most often intellectual property objects.

NFT copyright. Is it real?

An NFT is only a certain record that confirms the right to a unique object – the token itself cannot be copyrighted.

This is because the non-interchangeable token itself, although it has its expression in objective form, was not created by creative labor, and this is the key criterion for recognizing a particular object as a copyright object. Also, the attribution of the NFT itself to intellectual property objects simply does not fit into the logic of its essence: the NFT – something that certifies the right to the object of intellectual property.

BAYC monkeys – a club for a select few

NFTs are now actively used to sell digital objects. For example, one of the most popular has become a collection of NFT BoredApeYacht Club (BAYC), which presents a collection of pictures of “cartoon” monkeys, which are procedurally generated by an algorithm. Why did the creators of these pictures decide to use NFT to distribute their works?

NFT contains information about the rights to the image to which it is “attached”. In the case of BAYC, this is exactly the situation: ownership of NFTs gives their owners access to a closed online club, exclusive in-person events, and also certifies their exclusive right to the said image and the character depicted in it.

In this case, non-exchangeable tokens are very much like uncertified securities, which also certify binding and other rights and also have no tangible medium.

Where are the borders?

For many people, it is not obvious that an NFT associated with a work or an object from the real world may not give the owner of a token any exclusive rights to that object. Unless the terms of purchase specifically state that an NFT certifying an exclusive right to an intellectual property object is transferred to the purchaser, it must be assumed that the NFT merely certifies ownership of a digital copy of a particular object.

By acquiring NFT, its new owner can not dispose of the rights for the work itself, to prohibit third parties from using or independently process the work without the consent of the right holder. He can only determine the fate of the copy he has inherited, without becoming the copyright holder for the work itself. The rights holder himself/herself is not restricted to create a few more digital copies of his/her work, issue new NFTs to certify ownership of them, and sell them to other purchasers.

It will work the same way in the other direction – if a person is not the owner of the exclusive right to a work, he is not entitled to issue an NFT certifying the right to such a work either.


It may seem that an NFT is just a risky investment which cannot perform any useful function. That’s not entirely true: in addition to selling images of monkeys and other digital art, NFTs can be used for more useful purposes

Recently the Japanese startup ABCRECORDS created a marketplace where anyone can buy NFTs entitling them to use a piece of music in their social networks and, subject to a special questionnaire and an agreement with the rights holder, the owner of the token can also obtain the right to use the music for commercial purposes.

If the NFT is resold, these rights will pass to another person, and the author of the work whose rights are certified by the NFT will receive a certain percentage of the resale amount.


Coinbase holds 5% of all Bitcoin in existence: Data

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Blockchain intelligence platform Arkham recently identified that crypto exchange Coinbase holds almost 1 million Bitcoin (BTC) in its wallets. The coins are worth more than $25 billion at current market prices for BTC. 

According to Arkham, the exchange’s holdings amount to almost 5% of all existing Bitcoin. Arkham said that Coinbase holds a total of 947,755 BTC. At the moment, Bitcoin’s circulating supply is around 19,493,537, according to coin information website CoinGecko.

Furthermore, Arkham also noted that it tagged and identified 36 million Bitcoin deposit and holding addresses used by the exchange. According to Arkham, Coinbase’s largest cold wallet holds around 10,000 BTC. Based on the exchange’s financial reports, the intelligence company believes that Coinbase has more Bitcoin that are not yet labeled and could not be identified. 

While Coinbase holds over $25 billion in BTC in its wallets, the exchange only owns around 10,000 of all the Bitcoin it holds, which is worth roughly $200 million, according to recent data.

Related: Bitcoin mining can help reduce up to 8% of global emissions: Report

Meanwhile, community members expressed varying reactions to the news about the amount of Bitcoin the centralized exchange holds. Some believe it’s a sign to withdraw their BTC from exchanges, warning holders not to wait until exchanges start to halt withdrawals. Others say that since there are legitimate concerns over cold wallets, there’s no good way to store their assets.

When it comes to Bitcoin ownership by companies, business intelligence firm MicroStrategy still owns the most BTC. In earnings results posted on Aug. 1, the firm’s co-founder Michael Saylor declared that the company owns 152,800 BTC, worth over $4 billion at the time of writing.

Magazine: How to protect your crypto in a volatile market: Bitcoin OGs and experts weigh in

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Coinbase CEO warns against AI regulation, calls for decentralization

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Brian Armstrong, the CEO of crypto exchange Coinbase, expressed his stance on artificial intelligence (AI) regulation in a recent post on the social media platform X (formerly Twitter). 

On Sept. 23, Armstrong explained that he believes that AI should not be regulated. According to the Coinbase CEO, the AI space needs to develop as soon as possible because of reasons such as national security. In addition, Armstrong also noted that despite the best intentions of regulators, regulation “has unintended consequences,” arguing that it kills innovation and competition.

The Coinbase executive cited the internet as an example. Armstrong believes there was a “golden age of innovation” on the internet and software because it was not regulated. The Coinbase CEO suggested the same should be applied to AI technology. 

Furthermore, Armstrong also presented an alternative to regulation in terms of protecting the AI space. According to the executive, it would be better to “decentralize it and open source it to let the cat out of the bag.”

Related: Tether acquires stake in Bitcoin miner Northern Data, hinting at AI collaboration

Meanwhile, various jurisdictions across the globe have either started to regulate AI or express concerns about its potential effects. On Aug. 15, China’s provisional guidelines for AI activity and management came into effect. The regulations were published on July 10 and were a joint effort between six of the country’s government agencies. This is the first set of AI rules implemented within the country amid the recent AI boom.

In the United Kingdom, the competition regulator studied AI in order to identify its potential impact on competition and consumers. On Sept. 18, the U.K.’s Competition and Markets Authority concluded that while AI has the potential to change people’s work and lives, the changes may happen too fast and could have a significant impact on competition.

Magazine: ‘AI has killed the industry’: EasyTranslate boss on adapting to change

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Bitcoin miners double down on efficiency and renewable energy at the World Digital Mining Summit

letizo News



Bitmain rolled out its next-generation Antminer S21 and S21 Hydro ASIC miners at the World Digital Mining Summit (WDMS) in Hong Kong on Sept. 22, revealing the crucial performance stats the entire industry has been waiting for. The S21 has a hash rate of 200 terahashes per second (TH/s) and an efficiency of 17.5 joules per terahash (J/T), while the S21 hydro hashes at 335 TH/s and 16 J/T, which is notable given that until recently, most Bitcoin ASICS were operating above the 20 J/T level.

With electricity costs continuing to rise year-over-year and the Bitcoin halving projected to occur in April 2024, ASIC efficiency is quickly becoming the paramount focus of miners, and many are also pivoting toward folding in renewable energy sources as a core component of their operations.

Bitcoin miners focus on efficiency and renewable energy

Sustainable development in the mining industry was a core theme discussed in a majority of the panels at the WDMS. In the opening roundtable, team members from Terrawulf, Core Scientific, CleanSpark and Iris Energy shared their perspectives on how further integration of renewable energy sources will become a critical strategy to implement for many miners after the April 2024 Bitcoin supply halving.

Bitmain World Digital Mining Summit. Source: Cointelegraph

According to Nazar Khan, Terrawulf’s chief operating officer:

“There’s a significant transition going on in the supply side of the generation process; there’s a concerted effort to decarbonize the entire supply stack, and so when we talk about Bitcoin miners consuming more renewable energy, that’s part of a broader theme that’s happening across the United States without Bitcoin mining as well. The role that we play is locating our Bitcoin mining loads in places where that’s happening and how do we facilitate that decarbonization process.“

One impact of the upcoming supply halving is that miners will maintain the same capital and operational costs, plus the need to pay down any revolving debts, while essentially seeing their block reward distribution cut in half.

For this reason, miners will either need to increase the percentage of their hash rate derived from sustainable energy sources or make efficiency adjustments to their ASIC fleet to maintain or increase their profitability.

Regarding the rollout of the Antminer XP 21 and its potential impact on the mining industry, BMC founder Justin Kramer said:

“The S21, if reliable, fairly priced and readily available — and yes, that’s a lot of ifs with Bitmain’s history — could revolutionize the crypto mining landscape with its efficiency. It is basically packing the power of two S19 100T miners into one unit. Despite this, the burgeoning aftermarket firmware market, coupled with hydro/immersion systems, give miners more tools to keep older generation miners, such as the S19, profitable also. Thus, while the S21 represents a notable advancement, it may not render sub 110 TH/s miners entirely obsolete.”

When asked about the more exciting aspects of the new S19 XP, Kramer noted that:

“I like that Bitmain is rewarding environmentally friendly mining farms with better pricing and advanced delivery with their new Carbon Neutral Certificate. But, I’ll add that, it was a little surprising when I noticed that both new S21 models offer 33% more hash rate (S21 200T versus 151T on S19j XP; S21 hydro is 335T versus the S19 XP Hydro at 257T). Is this a coincidence? I’m doubtful, and it likely signals more of the same systematic model releases from Bitmain where a slight tweak to the firmware and maybe a few other items that are adjusted results in a moderate increase in hash rate and a brand-new miner.”

Bitcoin is en route to becoming an ESG asset

A theme of the past few years has been an increase in Bitcoin miners and BTC advocates pushing back against the assertion that Bitcoin mining is bad for the environment, and that the industry’s reliance on carbon-based energy production accelerates emissions.

Countering this perspective, Hong Kong Sustaintech Foundation professor in accounting and finance, Haitian Lu, bluntly announced that:

“Bitcoin mining is promoting renewable energy adoption in many areas.”

Lu explained that “over the years, Bitcoin mining has become more efficient and is also using cleaner energy. History tells us that human development from an agricultural society to industrialization to the future of a digitalized economy goes with every increasing energy consumption per capita. What makes the difference is human’s ability to use renewable energy increases, thus achieving sustainable development.”

Like the perspectives shared by other panelists, Lu said that Bitcoin miners’ participation in demand response agreements with power producers and distributors leads to energy grid efficiency, and they “provide an economic incentive for the development of renewable energy “promotion and development of renewable energy projects.”

In addition to Bitcoin mining tapping into stranded energy, encouraging the development of renewable energy projects and helping to balance electric grids, the efficiency advancements of next-generation ASICs like the Antminer S21 reduce miners’ energy consumption while also allowing them to boost their profits.

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